RedCon1 – Boswellia Serrata Part II

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RedCon1 – Boswellia Serrata Part II

Continuing on with the research, we see multiple studies looking further in depth into its anti-inflammatory properties (that seem to have possible cardioprotective benefits as well.) Roy et al looked into the regulation of vascular responses to inflammation (inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to anti-inflammatory boswellia.) They stated that endothelial cells are critical elements in the pathophysiology of inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha potently induces inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. Recently we have examined the genetic basis of the antiinflammatory effects of Boswellia extract (BE) in a system of TNF alpha-induced gene expression in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Of the 522 genes induced by TNFalpha in HMECs, 113 genes were sensitive to BE. BE prevented the TNFalpha-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In the current work, we sought to test the effects of BE on TNFalpha-inducible MMP expression in HMECs. Acetyl-11-ketobeta- boswellic acid (AKBA) is known to be an active principle in BE. To evaluate the significance of AKBA in the antiinflammatory properties of BE, effects of BE containing either 3% (BE3%) or 30% (BE30%, 5- Loxin) were compared. Pretreatment of HMECs for 2 days with BE potently prevented TNFalpha-induced expression and activity of MMP-3, MMP-10, and MMP-12. In vivo, BE protected against experimental arthritis. In all experiments, both in vitro and in vivo, BE30% was more effective than BE3%. In sum, this work lends support to our previous report that BE has potent anti inflammatory properties both in vitro as well as in vivo (4.)

Moving forward, we look more closely into its anti-cancer properties (which should be a major concern for all.) Boswellia is more anti-proliferative rather than apoptotic. Referring back to one of the main bioactvies (3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-Boswellic Acid) AKBA, actually inhibits Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1), which has been marked as a main target for chemotherapy, when hypoxia is induced. In fact, many of the initial studies had rodents that were injected with tumors that showed boswellia suppressing their growth as well as lowering overall inflammatory markers and used as a  phytopharmaceutical for brain edema (5, 6, 7.) All of this literature doesnt even scratch the surface of the potential benefits of boswellia. You can look into its interactions within the kidneys and lungs or its potential effects on testosterone and cortisol and find some promising results. In conclusion, lets discuss practical application and dosages. As with every supplement, the form it is taken in will usually dictate the dosage. Based on the literature I’ve read, it seems the following is a good guideline to follow as a proper dosing strategy for boswellia’s health benefits.

  1. Boswellia Serrata Resin seems to be potent within the 2-3 gram range (split up throughout the day in 1 gram dosages)
  2. If using a more potent form that contains more AKBA like the 5-Loxin I previously mentioned, then 200mgs taken once per day seems to be sufficient

No matter what supplement you take and any study you read, you will have a unique biological response that may differ drastically than another person’s. This is why I always recommend beginning with the lowest effective dosage possible and increasing that dosage over time IF the increase is warranted. With a substance like boswellia, I would hazard to say that more may be slightly more beneficial than less.

References

  1. Determination of major boswellic acids in plasma by high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Kathleen Gerbeth, Juergen Meins, Simon Kirste, Felix Momm, Manfred Schubert-Zsilavecz, Mona Abdel-Tawab. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855244)
  2. Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to antiinflammatory Boswellia. Sashwati Roy, Savita Khanna, Alluri V. Krishnaraju, Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju, Taharat Yasmin, Debasis Bagchi, Chandan K. Sen. 2006 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16677108)
  3. A lipoxygenase inhibitor in breast cancer brain metastases. D. F. Flavin. J Neurooncol. 2007  (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17001517)
  4. Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to antiinflammatory Boswellia. Sashwati Roy, Savita Khanna, Alluri V. Krishnaraju, Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju, Taharat Yasmin, Debasis Bagchi, Chandan K. Sen. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16677108)
  5. Isolation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitors from frankincense using a molecularly imprinted polymer. Achillia Lakka, Ilias Mylonis, Sophia Bonanou, George Simos, Andreas Tsakalof. Invest New Drugs. 2011 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20437079)
  6. Hypoxia inducible factor-1: a novel target for cancer therapy. Vladimir E. Belozerov, Erwin G. Van Meir. Anticancer Drugs. 2005 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16162966)
  7. Response of radiochemotherapy-associated cerebral edema to a phytotherapeutic agent, H15. J. R. Streffer, M. Bitzer, M. Schabet, J. Dichgans, M. Weller. Neurology. 2001 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11342692)
  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of ginger, Arabic gum, and Boswellia in acute and chronic renal failure. Mona Fouad Mahmoud, Abdalla Ahmed Diaai, Fahmy Ahmed. Ren Fail. 2012 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22017619)
  9. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibiting constituents from Eriobotrya japonica revealed by bioactivity-guided isolation and computational approaches. Judith M. Rollinger, Denise V. Kratschmar, Daniela Schuster, Petra H. Pfisterer, Christel Gumy, Evelyne M. Aubry, Sarah Brandstötter, Hermann Stuppner, Gerhard Wolber, Alex Odermatt. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20100662)
  10. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study. I. Gupta, V. Gupta, A. Parihar, S. Gupta, R. Lüdtke, H. Safayhi, H. P. Ammon. Eur J Med Res. 1998  (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9810030)
  11. Herbal interventions for chronic asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Christopher E. Clark, Elizabeth Arnold, Toby J. Lasserson, Taixiang Wu. Prim Care Respir J. 2010 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20640388)
  12. TRPV3 and TRPV4 mediate warmth-evoked currents in primary mouse keratinocytes. Man-Kyo Chung, Hyosang Lee, Atsuko Mizuno, Makoto Suzuki, Michael J. Caterina. J Biol Chem. 2004 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15004014)
  13. TRPV3 is a temperature-sensitive vanilloid receptor-like protein. G. D. Smith, M. J. Gunthorpe, R. E. Kelsell, P. D. Hayes, P. Reilly, P. Facer, J. E. Wright, J. C. Jerman, J-P Walhin, L. Ooi, et al. Nature. 2002 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12077606)
  14. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin® for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Krishanu Sengupta, Krishnaraju V Alluri, Andey Rama Satish, Simanchala Mishra, Trimurtulu Golakoti, Kadainti VS Sarma, Dipak Dey, Siba P Raychaudhuri. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18667054)
  15. The 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene pathway in obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease. Marcos Martínez-Clemente, Joan Clària, Esther Titos. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2011 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21587068)
  16. Mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid. H. Safayhi, E. R. Sailer, H. P. Ammon. Mol Pharmacol. 1995 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7603462)

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